From a historical point of view, the main activity of investment banks is what today we call security underwriting. Investment banks buy securities, such as bonds and stocks, from an issuer and then sell them to the ?nal investors. In the eighteenth century, the main securities were bonds issued by governments. The way these bonds were priced and placed is extraordinarily similar to the system that inve- ment banks still use nowadays. When a government wanted to issue new bonds, it negotiated with a few prominent "middlemen" (today we would call them investment bankers). The middlemen agreed to take a fraction of the bonds: they accepted to do so only after having canvassed a list of people they could rely upon. The people on the list were the ?nal investors. The middlemen negotiated with the government even after the issuance. Indeed, in those days governments often changed unilaterally the bond conditions and being on the list of an important middleman could make the difference. On the other hand, middlemen with larger lists were considered to be in a better bargaining position. This game was repeated over time, and hence, reputation mattered. For the middlemen, being trusted by both the investors on the list and by the issuing governments was crucial.
How did the Japanese achieve their unrivalled position in world banking? This book, first published in 1995, provides a full account in English of the banking industry in Japan for the century following the opening of the country to the outside world in 1859. Professor Tamaki begins by considering the period of experimentation during the Meiji Restoration which resulted in the adoption of the Gold Standard in 1891. He then offers a detailed examination of the highly profitable years up to the end of the First World War and of the subsequent crisis which was hastened by the earthquake that devastated Tokyo and Yokohama in 1923 and sealed by the financial collapse of 1927. New light is thrown on the extraordinary role played by the banking industry during the period of military expansionism which culminated with defeat in the Second World War. The book ends with an assessment of the post-war financial system which developed out of the Macarthur directives and the subsequent American 'democratisation' programme.
Acquisition Of Shares In A Foreign Country : Substantive Law And Legal Opinions - Report Of The Subcommittee On Legal Opinions Of The Committee On Banking Law Of The Section Of Business Law Of The International Bar Association And The Committee On Business Organizations Of The Section On Business Law Of The International Bar Association
This new book contains a detailed analysis of the legal requirements in connection with the issuance and transfer of shares in a foreign country. The book discusses issues such as the mechanics of transfer, foreign stock ownership, registration and notification requirements, good faith acquisition of shares, transfer restrictions and lost or stolen shares under the laws of twenty-eight different countries. In addition, the book proposes - for each jurisdiction model - legal opinion language (and appropriate legal opinion backup) which counsel to the purchaser should request in order to protect his client. The book is a valuable tool for anyone who purchases a company or a stake in a company in a foreign country. Reports from the following countries are included: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, S. Africa, Spain, Switzerland, UK, Hong Kong, Scotland, U.S.A., Venezuela.