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The Mortality Mortgage
The life insurance industry is one of the last examples of unrestricted capitalism in this country. Despite some regulation by various government agencies, life insurance remains a largely uncontrolled financial giant. It is the life insurance plan, how it works, that shields this industry. The Mortality Mortgage, the source of the Barnes Standard is an explanation of life insurance pricing, and a call for full financial disclosure through regulation of the industry. It is intended for financial consultants, tax attorneys, CPA's, life insurance agents, and other groups who advise consumers on financial matters. Insurance buyers supply this industry with millions of dollars in premiums each year. Consumers deserve a truth in lending law and an appraisal process for this financial service. Life insurance is not a product, it is financing. Four factors denote financial quality: price or principal, rate, term and closing costs. Consumers understand these financial elements for homes and bonds, but they do not equate the fundamentals of financial quality with life insurance.
The life insurance industry, through marketing and advertising, has taught the public to focus on premiums, death benefits, and cash values; financial elements are ignored. The Mortality Mortgage compares and contrasts three financial models: the home mortgage, the bond or debt security, and life insurance. Additionally, it provides the formulas necessary for appraisal of a life insurance plan. With an appraisal, a comparison of insurance policies is possible. Once pricing is understood, consumers will demand full financial disclosure through regulation of the life insurance industry.
A New Type Of Hereditary Brachyphalangy In Man
An excerpt from the beginning of the INTRODUCTION:
No other field in biology has within recent years yielded such far-reaching and important results as the field of genetic work. Thanks to the introduction of analytical experimentation, one after another of the central problems in natural science has been solved or brought near to a solution-problems which after so many vain attempts seemed almost beyond the reach of ordinary scientific analysis. The progress has been so considerable that one of the most prominent workers in this field, T. H. Morgan, in 1916 felt justified in stating: "I venture the opinion that the problem of heredity has been solved."
It scarcely needs to be pointed out that the broad general significance of the hereditary phenomena makes it urgently necessary to determine whether the results obtained through experimental work with animals and plants may be applied to the inheritance of human characters. There was a priori no reason to doubt that this would prove to be the case, and several human characters, physiological as well as pathological, have been shown to be inherited in a way fully accordant with the laws established through experimental genetic work.
Human material, however, presents several serious obstacles for genetic analysis. Not only the principal handicap involved in the lack of experiments, but also other special features make man a very poor subject for work in heredity. The number of individuals within each family is very small; intermarriage is comparatively rare; the interval of time between the generations is very long; and the characters studied are rarely amenable to accurate measurements.
Only the application of the most general hereditary laws, those of Mendelian inheritance and of sex-linked inheritance, has accordingly so far been possible with human material. Still, the experimental work has shown that even though these laws form the basis of all our knowledge of heredity, their manifestation is far more complicated than it would seem from many earlier investigations, where the case seemed closed when it was possible to demonstrate the occurrence of Mendelian segregation.
In spite of the difficulties and the incompleteness of the data which are due to the nature of this material, it is nevertheless desirable, whenever human characters are observed which are accessible for genetic analysis, to carry out this analysis and determine, if possible, whether or not the principles established through experimental work may be extended so as to include human material.
The hereditary character which forms the subject of the following investigation is a symmetrical shortness of a single (the second)phalanx of the second fingers and toes. This character is inherited within a Norwegian family, some members of which have emigrated to North America. Our attention was called to the material by Dr. Frimann Koren, of Christiania, who observed the malformation in some members of the family 15 years ago.